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中国农业向大企业集约化迈进
作者:佚名    内容来源:Source:www.51voa.com    点击数:    更新时间:2016/11/7

China Embraces Corporate Farming

 

中国农业向大企业集约化迈进

 

 

BEIJING — China is opening up its agriculture industry to corporate farming, a move that could have wide economic and political implications. That decision may gradually phase out collective farming, which has long been one of the Communist Party’s main political levers through a national network of provincial and county leaders.

 

北京报道——中国农业正向大企业农业迈进,此举将产生广泛的经济和政治影响。它将逐步淘汰集体农业,而集体农业是中国执政党通过遍布全国的省县干部网络实现的主要政治杠杆之一。

 

China is hoping to entice foreign and private capital to invest in the tightly-controlled agricultural sector. State media also notes the policy aims to promote and standardize the “transfer of the right to use farmland from rural residents to commercial entities.”

 

中国希望吸引外国和私人资本投资控制得很紧的农业板块。官方媒体也指出,这项政策旨在促进和规范“农村居民耕地使用权流转到商业实体”的行为。

 

The plan comes after authorities announced earlier this year that they want to relocate 100 million farmers, about 12 percent of the rural population, into smaller cities. The farmland they leave behind could be bundled together into larger tracts that would be farmed by companies using more modern methods. Under Chinese law, farmers collectively own rural land. Individual farmers are allowed to use the land under a contract system that has been in place since the 1970s. But that system has left vast tracts of Chinese farmland unattended in recent years because of a high level of labor migration to fast-growing cities. In some cases, local collectives also have been abused by corrupt local officials who colluded with developers. The government is looking to change this system and use businesses to improve farm productivity. China is known for its inefficient use of water and fertilizers, which is a problem that could be addressed by new technologies.

 

中国政府今年年初宣布将1亿农民安置到小城市,他们约占农业人口的12%。之后就宣布了这项计划。他们留下的耕地将被整合成大片土地,由农业企业利用更为现代化的手段耕种。

按照中国法律,农村土地归农民集体所有。每个农民可以按照二十世纪七十年代颁行的承包制来使用土地。但是这项制度导致中国近年来农村土地大规模撂荒,因为劳动力都流向了快速发展的城市。在一些地方,腐败官员和开发者勾结,破坏了地方集体所有制。政府正在寻找改革这个制度的方法,利用企业来提高农业产值。众所周知,中国对水和肥料的使用广泛但是效率不高,而新技术可以解决这个问题。

 

“This is going to be a game changer with wide implications both for the economy and the political system,” Erlend Ek, agriculture research manager for consulting firm, China Policy, told VOA. “New opportunities are opening up because Chinese authorities are seeking partnerships with foreign companies in the field of agriculture technology.”

 

“这将对中国的经济和政治制度产生非常广泛的影响。”中国政策咨询公司农业研究主任艾尔兰德·艾克在接受“美国之声”采访时说,“中国政府开放了新的机会,因为他们在寻找农业技术方面的外国企业合作伙伴。”

 

But the shift could mark a stark break with the past. During the era of Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong, the party’s influence grew out of its efforts to equally distribute land rights by creating co-operatives or collectives of farmers. This strategy waned over the years as China moved toward large-scale industrialization and rapid urbanization.

 

但是改变就意味着与过去彻底决裂。在毛泽东主席执政的时代,正是因为在农民中间用集体所有的方式平分土地权利,中共才发展了强大的影响力。随着中国迈向大规模工业化和快速城市化,这项策略慢慢失去了强大的影响力。

 

State media says that there is popular support for switching to corporate farming. “There have been a growing demand from rural residents for transferring farmland to others for management and production,” the official Xinhua news agency said adding, “The new policy will lead to the formation of mechanisms that will make the transfer more standardized, while land owners’ rights will be better protected.” Chinese leaders have been discussing the need to attract business investments into agriculture for years, and have taken measures to lure in international agriculture companies in specialized zones.

 

官方媒体称,企业化农业得到了广泛的支持。“在管理和生产方面,农村居民把耕地转让给别人的需求越来越大。”新华新闻社补充说,“新政策将构建转让的规范机制,土地所有者的权益将得到更好地保护。”多年以来,中国领导人都在讨论吸引外资投资农业的需要,已经在特定地区采取了吸引国际农业企业的措施。

 

But analysts say this is the first attempt to create a legal process that could affect farms across the entire country.

 

但是分析人士称,这是建立影响全国农业的法律程序中的第一步。

 

Jacob Kirkegaard, an economist with the Peterson Institute for International Economics said the government’s aim is to persuade Chinese companies to invest in this new sector instead of merely pouring funds into real estate or investments abroad, which has been the general trend.“This is surely the beginning of the end of “collective farming” as a very labor intensive sector,” Kirkegaard said.

 

雅各布·柯克加德是彼得森国际经济研究所的经济学家。他说,政府的目的是促使中国企业加紧向新领域投资,而不是仅仅将资金投向房地产领域或者海外。这已经成了大的趋势。“这必定是‘集体所有制’这一劳动密集型产业终结的开始。”柯克加德说。

There has been resistance among pro-Maoist sections of the Communist Party to handing over parcels of land to business groups.

 

中共党内的亲毛派一直抵制将土地打包交给企业集团。

 

Ek said, “Many critics, including some senior Party members, worry about switching from their traditional rural power base." He said the move is sensible because it can lead to the better use of the resources. “But in political economy terms, there is a risk that commercializing agriculture will see a transfer of assets out of the countryside to enrich urban elites.” Kirkegaard said the move may “lead to accelerated de-population of rural areas, as land plots are merged and investments in mechanization by new private investors are made.” The effect of this reform may the opposite of what is intended, which is to keep people in the country-side instead of crowding the cities.

 

艾克说,“包括资深党员在内的很多人担忧,这将动摇他们传统农村力量的根基。”他说,此举非常切合实际,因为这能让资源得以更好地利用。“但是就政治经济这一点来说,农业商业化是有风险的,资产将从农村转移到城市精英手中。”他称此举可能“加速农村地区的人口流失,因为小块土地已经流失,新的私人投资者会在机械化方面投资。”改革的影响可能会走到反面——其本意是让农民留在农村,而不是成群流向城市。

 

Cai Jiming, a professor of economics at Tsinghua University in Beijing said while the policy will allow private and foreign companies to rent or lease the land, they will not have ownership rights, which could discourage investments. “And as more and more farmers move into the city and relocate, the collective will be run by a small few,” instead of letting those outside the cities and companies come in and fill that gap in ownership. Xu Bin, a professor of economics and finance at CEIBS said the policy is in line with the direction of economic reforms, which is to gradually open certain restricted areas to the private sector, including foreign investments.

 

蔡继明是清华大学经济学教授,他说虽然这项政策允许私人和外国企业租借土地,但是他们并不拥有土地的所有权,这可能会打击投资积极性。“随着越来越多的农民涌向城市重新安家,经营集体土地的人将会很少,”而不是让那些人离开城市,让企业进来填补所有权的空白。徐斌是中欧国际商学院经济学和金融领域的教授,他说这项政策符合经济改革的指导思想,受限制的领域将逐渐向包括外国投资在内的私人部门开放。

 

Edited by Amy(代晶晶)

 
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